Yesterday Apple unveiled the latest versions of OS X (code-named Mavericks) and iOS 7, at the annual World Wide Developer Conference (WWDC). The general focus was on end-user features and items of interest to developers, but several items appeared to have an impact on security in one way or another.
The beta versions of both operating systems were also released to developers yesterday, but I haven’t seen them yet (and once I do, I’d probably be bound by NDA to not talk much about them). So before I go that route (hopefully later this week!), I thought it would be useful to quickly review some of the items I found potentially significant. I’ll briefly describe the features, then summarize some of the security questions I have at the end. Also, whenever I talk about “Early Reports,” I’m referring to information not specifically announced by Apple, but which have leaked through screenshots and other reports.
OS X “Mavericks”
Though my focus at Intrepidus has generally been on iOS, I do use OS X on a daily basis, and a few items here seemed worthy of mention (plus, they also pertain to iOS).
- Passwords in the Cloud — a secure vault, stored on iCloud, for website logins, credit card numbers, wi-fi passwords, etc. This was cited as using AES-256 encryption, pushed to trusted devices. When used within Safari, it can even auto-suggest random, secure passwords as you create web-based accounts.
- Notifications in the lock screen — when the computer is locked or asleep, notifications (including push notifications) can queue up, and will be displayed to the user the next time they wake up the computer, while the screen is still locked.
- The map application can send directions to an iPhone, but how this works wasn’t explained. My speculation is it’s an iCloud document, just like you can send Passbook passes from Safari directly to your iOS devices.
This was the big change. So big, they repeatedly referred to it as “the biggest change to iOS since the introduction of the iPhone.” Clearly, there have been big changes in the interface design, but also several new features were introduced as well.
- AirDrop — iOS devices can now share information directly with nearby friends over peer-to-peer Wi-Fi. This was introduced in OS X Lion, and doesn’t require actually being on the same Wi-Fi network.
- Notification center on lock screen — similar to the new feature in Mavericks
- Control Center — provides an easy way to toggle features like Wi-Fi, Airplane mode, and Do Not Disturb, by simply swiping up from the bottom of the screen. This also allows quick access to four applications: Flashlight, Timers, Calculator, and Camera.
- Better multitasking — applications may now actually remain in the background, with the operating system using some careful monitoring and management to reduce the cycles they use to the bare minimum. This also provides a facility called “push trigger,” where an application in the background can actually immediately act on data received in a push notification.
- Safari: iCloud keychain and parental controls — I don’t have any idea what the parental controls would do, but if it provides a way to blacklist and/or whitelist websites, this could be somewhat useful in corporate settings. And, of course, the iCloud keychain (described above for Mavericks) is a major new feature.
- App store automatic updates — this is a good/bad thing, in my mind. People certainly want to stop having to do big updates of many apps every week or two…but sometimes a new version of an app may be buggy, and users might not want to upgrade immediately. Also, corporations may want to review apps before they’re updated, to ensure that new features don’t change the risk profile the app poses to their enterprise.
- Activation Lock — this new feature allows a user to configure an iOS device such that if it’s been remotely wiped (because it was lost or stolen), then the device cannot be re-activated until the original iCloud credentials are entered. This should provide some additional deterrence against theft, at least, once the feature becomes widespread and well understood.
These keynotes always focus on only a few features, and there are always several dozen other features that don’t get described in detail. In this case, two screens full of features were shown during the keynote, including several that appear to have relevance to security or corporate users:
- Enterprise single sign on — definitely interesting
- Per-app VPNs — would be very interesting if each app could be assigned to an arbitrary VPN
- Streamline MDM enrollment — no idea what this could mean, since (for the end user) it’s already pretty simple
- App store volume purchase — this has been a complicated endeavor since it was first introduced, so changes here could be significant
- Managed app configuration — this might be similar to application profiles in the OS X profile manager (which are an outgrowth of the old MCX system in pre-Lion OS X)
- Scan to acquire passbook passes — probably built-in QR scanner
- iBeacons — Low Energy Bluetooth location
- Automatic configuration — possibly the aforementioned app configuration
- Barcode scanning — may confirm the passbook assumption
- Data protection by default — finally, all apps may have the additional “encrypted when device is locked” protection
Finally, some interesting bits have already been seen in screenshots on the web:
- Integration of Vimeo and Flickr accounts for share sheets (similar to existing Twitter and Facebook integration)
- Separate iCloud security panel, including integrated two-factor authentication, a separate passcode for the iCloud keychain, and a toggle for “Keychain Recovery” subtitled “Restore passwords if you lose all your devices.”
- How are passwords in the cloud stored, and does anyone else have access to the data (for example, if you forget your key)?
- Can we control what notifications appear on the lock screen? For example, allow Twitter, but disallow mail, while allowing both Twitter and email when the device is unlocked?
- Does AirDrop on iOS introduce any new problems? Can strangers try to push data to you while in public, even if you’re not logged into a public Wi-Fi? Could that lead to a phishing vector (for example, sharing a malicious configuration profile over AirDrop)?
- Can you change the applications available for quick-launch in the Control Center? Early reports indicate that the Control Center may be enabled for use in the lock screen, and if so, how does that affect apps which encrypt their data?
- How much can an application do when woken up by a push trigger? Could an attacker in control of a malicious app and its push server remotely enable the device microphone, for example? Can this be done while the device is locked?
- Can automatic app updates be configured, for example, to wait a week after release prior to being applied? Can the feature be disabled altogether? Or better yet, can certain apps be flagged for manual updating only?
- For activation lock, can the remote geolocation and messaging features of Find My iPhone remain intact even after the device was wiped? Currently, users are faced with a tough choice, whether to wipe the device and give up any chance of locating it again, or leave it trackable, and able to receive messages, but at risk of someone extracting sensitive information from it. It’d be nice if one could wipe the device, but still be able to try to track it down and send “If found, please call me for a reward” messages to the finder.
All in all, there appears to be a great deal of change coming in both OS X, and especially, iOS. This summer will keep us busy exploring all the new features and their security implications, and hopefully the final release will prove to be an improvement in many areas.